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The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Guanfacine is a medication that is currently used to manage the withdrawal symptoms in individuals undergoing opioid detoxification.Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U. A combination of these two medications may be beneficial in reducing heroin use in individuals addicted to heroin.Insight is also defined as awareness of mental illness. The readiness to change and insight in alcohol dependent patients. The interchangeability of these two terms derives directly from the definition of “insight,” and is widely supported by the current literature: in the validation process of several questionnaires designed to measure patients’ insight into mental illness, insight has been defined as “self-appraisal of Illness” (Marks et al., 2000), “judgment” (Kokoszka et al., 2008), “self-reflection on patients’ anomalous experiences” (Engh et al., 2007), “awareness of having a mental disorder” (Beck et al., 2004), and “awareness of psychiatric illness” (Roncone et al., 2003). In psychotic disorders, a poor degree of insight has been associated with a poorer course of the illness and non-compliance with treatment that is necessary for patients (Husted, 1999). Unexpectedly, deficits in insight have not been found to be more common and severe in patients with schizophrenia than in those with bipolar disorder – a finding that has strong clinical, theoretical, and nosological implications (Pini et al., 2001). Of particular interest is the role played by the insula in processes related to conscious introception, emotional experience, and decision-making. Within this framework the insula contributes to the way addicted individuals feel, remember, and decide about taking drugs – the main result being that drug addiction turns out to be like a naturally motivated behavior, closely comparable with eating and sex (Naqvi and Bechara, 2010).
This study will evaluate the effectiveness of naltrexone and guanfacine, alone and in combination, at reducing heroin use in heroin addicts.Patients’ lack of insight into their mental illness is a complex and poorly investigated phenomenon which seriously influences psychosocial functioning, shows a clear correlation with the severity of psychiatric symptoms, and has been seen as related to treatment compliance, with important prognostic implications (Husted, 1999; Francis and Penn, 2001; Vender and Poloni, 2006). In psychology and psychiatry, insight can mean the ability to recognize one’s own mental illness (Markova, 2005). While each of these medications is useful in the treatment of heroin addiction, a combination of the two drugs may be more effective than either medication alone.The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of naltrexone, guanfacine, and a combination of naltrexone and guanfacine at reducing drug relapse in heroin addicts.
In the case of the obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is typically characterized by an excellent level of insight, a trend toward a lower level of insight has been noted in patients with somatic obsessions and in obsessive-bipolar patients (Marazziti et al., 2002).